Pahlawan Devisa dalam Perspektif Media

Abstract

“Welcome Home, Our State Revenue Heroes” was written on a big banner welcoming migrant workers  arriving at the arrival lounge of Soekarno Hatta International AirportIronically, despite the praise, violence affecting them prevails. No serious attention had been given to these cases, until we got struck by Ruyati’s recent execution which took place in Saudi Arabia, on the 19th of June 2011. This case was dragged right under the spotlight with the national media widely covering it, perceiving it as one that we all should be ashamed of. It is interesting therefore to study how the issue of female migrant worker has been framed and voiced in the media through the news sources, in particular the female ones. The emphasis shall be put on the study of the women politician’s and activist’s voices, since those workers have been more affected/ involved in cases related to violence. Also studies on media gender sensitivity have to be upscaled because its perspective could coloured the news coverages. The theoretical framework used as the main reference of this study includes the standpoint theory and feminist media concept. The theoretical framework used includes the standpoint theory and feminist media concept. The data was gathered from printed media coverage Kompas, Media Indonesia and Republika, , considering that those three media had been covering Ruyati’s case more intensively compared to other media. There were 9 news articles analyzed during the period of 20th June until 1st of July 2001. Findings show: (1) Voice of majority pessimised toward government’s responses given to female migrant workers related cases. (2) Low participation of women news sources compared to that of their male counterparts. Quantitatively, the media have not shown adequate defense toward women or migrant workers. Women who constitute the majority of the victims of violence have not been given a significant position to voice their interests. (3) Men’s voices emphasized on revision of regulations on politics, laws and economics related to TKW, while the women ones stressed on saving female migrant workers were supposed to be done through a short cut or high diplomacy.

 

Abstrak

“Selamat Datang Pahlawan Devisa”, demikian bunyi spanduk  besar di ruang kedatangan internasional di Bandara Internasional Soekarno Hatta menyambut kedatangan TKI dari luar negeri.  Sayangnya fenomena kekerasan terhadap TKW terus muncul, sampai terjadi kasus Hukuman Mati terhadap TKW Ruyati di Arab Saudi pada tanggal 19 Juni 2011. Kasus Ruyati dianggap fenomenal dan mencoreng harga diri bangsa ini, karena itu pemberitaan media sangat intensif. Hal yang menarik untuk diteliti adalah bagaimana kasus TKW dibingkai dan disuarakan oleh media melalui para narasumbernya, terutama narasumber perempuan? Penekanan pada  pentingnya kajian suara (aktivis dan politisi) perempuan karena kasus TKI lebih banyak menimpa atau melibatkan perempuan. Selain itu, studi sensitivitas gender dalam media perlu ditingkatkan karena perspektif tersebut bisa mewarnai pemberitaan. Teori yang digunakan adalah standpoint theory dan konsep feminist media. Data diperoleh dari pemberitaan koran Kompas, Media Indonesia dan Republika karena ketiganya memberitakan kasus Ruyati dan TKI lebih intensif dibandingkan dengan koran lain sejak tanggal 20 Juni sd 1 Juli 2011. Jumlah berita yang dianalisis ada 9. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1) Munculnya nada pesimis terhadap kinerja pemerintah dalam menyikapi kasus TKI. (2) Posisi perempuan sebagai narasumber jumlahnya jauh lebih sedikit dari narasumber laki-laki. Artinya secara kuantitatif, media massa masih belum menunjukkan pembelaan cukup berarti pada TKW. Kaum perempuan yang biasanya menjadi korban kekerasan tidak diberi posisi berarti untuk menyuarakan kepentingannya. (3) Nada suara narasumber laki-laki menekankan pembenahan di bidang politik, hukum dan ekonomi yang terkait dengan TKW, sedangkan kepedulian narasumber perempuan berfokus pada penyelamatan individu TKW seharusnya dilakukan melalui jalan pintas atau diplomasi tingkat tinggi. 

Kata kunci: News Sources, Media and Gender, Migrant Workers or TKI/TKW.

Catatan: Makalah ini diterbitkan di Jurnal Ilmu Komunikasi. Volume 9, Nomor 2, Mei – Agustus 2011 oleh Program Studi Ilmu Komunikasi UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta dan Ikatan Sarjana Ilmu Komunikasi (ISKI).

 

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